Ballyhoo: The Art of Selling the Movies
From March 10, 2012 through January 27, 2013 in Special Exhibition Galleries
Ballyhoo: The Art of Selling the Movies, part of the See: Untold Stories exhibition, highlights the innovative lobby displays, outdoor advertising, and merchant tie-ins that were a hallmark of film exhibition during the era of the corporate studio system, which was at its peak between 1925 and 1950. The images are drawn primarily from the publicity stills and photographs collected by Ray Rueby, Sr., and the studio publicity departments of Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. During the 25 years that are the focus of this exhibition, studios devised bigger, brassier, and glitzier productions to entice patrons facing the Great Depression and a world war. The publicity efforts that accompanied the films are, in this exhibition, the star of the show.
The motion picture industry was considered a wild and uncertain concern in its first two decades. By the early 1920s, as smaller concerns merged into fewer and larger corporations, the industry became stable enough to be considered a legitimate business by Wall Street investors. During these formative years, motion picture studios created a system of vertical integration that allowed them to control every aspect of the business — production, distribution, and exhibition. Corporate ownership of movie theatres and block booking ensured regular exhibition throughout the country.
Studios also provided pre-packaged publicity campaigns to their theatre chains to help fill theatre seats in a highly competitive market. Much of the publicity was carried out at the site of exhibition, the theatres themselves. In the age of the “movie palace,” theatres could be alluring structures in their own right, but exhibitors continually refashioned their facades and lobbies to attract audiences week after week. Theatre managers adapted the studios’ strategies — provided to them in the form of pressbooks — to their own venues.
Dazzling marquees, large cut-outs of stars, and eye-catching posters greeted passersby. Street hawkers, parades, and star appearances (or look-alike contests) created a buzz in towns and cities. Theatre managers worked with local merchants on cooperative campaigns (tie-ins) to advertise films in shop windows, stage contests and giveaways, and display merchandise from stores in theatre lobbies. Upon entering the lobby itself, moviegoers encountered creative displays embellished with movie stills and even three-dimensional recreations of movie settings.